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What is Typhoid Fever and How to Better Prevent it?

Typhoid, also known as typhoid fever, is a bacterial infection caused by the bacterium Salmonella enterica serotype.
Typhoid fever can be spread throughout the year, but its transmission may be more common during certain seasons, depending on various factors such as environmental conditions and human behavior. In regions with warmer climates, typhoid fever may be more prevalent during the rainy season when water sources become contaminated with sewage containing the bacterium Salmonella Typhi. In contrast, in temperate regions, typhoid fever cases may peak during the warmer months when conditions favor bacterial growth and the spread of the disease. However, it's important to note that typhoid fever can occur at any time of the year, particularly in areas with inadequate sanitation and hygiene practices.
Photo from Public Health Image Library (PHIL), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), U.S.A.





  1. Fever: A sustained high fever, often reaching 103 to 104 degrees Fahrenheit (39 to 40 degrees Celsius), is a hallmark symptom of typhoid fever.
  2. Headache: Persistent and often severe headaches are common.
  3. Stomach Pain: Abdominal pain and discomfort, often located in the area around the belly button, can be present.
  4. Weakness and Fatigue: Generalized weakness, fatigue, and malaise are typical symptoms.
  5. Loss of Appetite: Many individuals with typhoid fever experience a loss of appetite, leading to a reduced desire to eat.
  6. Diarrhea or Constipation: Diarrhea is common in some cases, while others may experience constipation.
  7. Rash: Some people develop a characteristic rash of flat, rose-colored spots, particularly on the trunk of the body.
  8. Joint Pain: Joint pain and muscle aches may occur.
  9. Other Symptoms: Additional symptoms can include nausea, vomiting, cough, and a feeling of being unwell.
Photo from Freepik.com




  1. Contaminated Food and Water: Consuming food or water that has been contaminated with the feces of an infected person is a common route of transmission. This can happen if food is prepared or handled by someone who is carrying the bacteria, or if water sources are contaminated with sewage containing the bacteria.
  2. Poor Sanitation: Inadequate sanitation practices, such as improper disposal of human waste or lack of access to clean water, can contribute to the spread of typhoid fever. Contaminated water sources and unsanitary conditions increase the risk of bacterial transmission.
  3. Close Contact with Carriers: Typhoid fever can also spread through close contact with individuals who are carriers of the bacteria. These individuals may not display symptoms of the disease but can still shed the bacteria in their feces, potentially contaminating their surroundings and infecting others.
  4. Travel to Endemic Areas: Traveling to regions where typhoid fever is endemic, especially in areas with poor sanitation infrastructure, increases the risk of exposure to the bacterium. Contaminated food and water sources in these regions pose a higher risk of infection for travelers.


  1. Blood Culture: Blood culture is the most definitive method for diagnosing typhoid fever. A sample of blood is collected and cultured in a laboratory to check for the presence of the Salmonella Typhi bacterium. This test is highly accurate but may take several days to yield results.
  2. Stool Culture: Stool culture involves collecting a sample of stool and culturing it in a laboratory to detect the presence of Salmonella Typhi bacteria. This test can also take a few days to produce results but is particularly useful in identifying carriers of the bacteria who may not display symptoms.
  3. Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs): Rapid diagnostic tests for typhoid fever are available that detect specific antibodies or antigens associated with Salmonella Typhi in blood or stool samples. These tests provide results within a short time frame, typically within 15-30 minutes, making them valuable for rapid diagnosis in clinical settings.
  4. Serological Tests: Serological tests, such as the Widal test, detect antibodies produced by the body in response to infection with Salmonella Typhi. While these tests are relatively quick and easy to perform, they may lack specificity and can produce false-positive results, particularly in areas where typhoid is endemic.
It's important to consult with a healthcare professional if you suspect you or someone else may have typhoid fever. They can recommend the most appropriate diagnostic test based on symptoms, medical history, and risk factors. Early detection and treatment of typhoid fever are crucial for preventing complications and controlling the spread of the disease.
Photo from Freepik.com


Treatment for typhoid fever typically involves antibiotics to kill the Salmonella Typhi bacteria. Commonly prescribed antibiotics include ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, and azithromycin. The choice of antibiotic depends on factors such as the severity of the illness, antibiotic resistance patterns in the region, and the patient's age and medical history.
In addition to antibiotics, supportive care is essential to manage symptoms and prevent complications. This may include:
  1. Fluid Replacement: Typhoid fever can cause dehydration due to fever, vomiting, and diarrhea. Replacing lost fluids and electrolytes through oral rehydration solutions or intravenous fluids helps maintain hydration and electrolyte balance.
  1. Nutritional Support: Patients with typhoid fever may have difficulty eating due to nausea and abdominal pain. Nutrient-rich foods and supplements may be recommended to ensure adequate nutrition and promote recovery.
  1. Rest: Adequate rest is crucial for allowing the body to fight the infection and regain strength. Patients with typhoid fever should get plenty of rest and avoid strenuous activities until they have fully recovered.
  1. Monitoring: Close monitoring of symptoms, vital signs, and laboratory parameters is necessary to assess the patient's response to treatment and detect any complications early.
It's important to complete the full course of antibiotics prescribed by a healthcare professional, even if symptoms improve before the medication is finished. Failure to complete the treatment regimen can lead to antibiotic resistance and recurrence of the infection.
In some cases, particularly in areas with high rates of antibiotic resistance, treatment options may be limited, and hospitalization may be necessary for intravenous antibiotic therapy and supportive care. Prevention measures, such as vaccination and practicing good hygiene and sanitation, are also essential for controlling the spread of typhoid fever.

AICHEK's Rapid Test Solution


Highly Accurate Typhoid igg igm Rapid Test Result

We did a medical test to check our AICHEK Typhoid Fever test result accuracy of Cassette (Serum/Plasma) against Typhoid IgG/IgM ELISA Testing. In the test, we adopted 231 IgG samples and 268 IgM samples. For the IgG samples, both tests identified 206 negative and 17 positive results,. And for the IgM samples, both tests identified 229 negative and 29 positive results.
Method S. typhoid (IgG) Total Results
AICHEK Typhoid Rapid Test Cassette for IgG (Serum/Plasma) Results Positive Negative
Positive 17 6 23
Negative 2 206 208
Total Results 19 212 231


Sensitivity: 89.5% (95%CI: 66.9%~98.7%)
Specificity: 97.2% (95%CI: 93.9%~98.9%)
Accuracy: 96.5% (95%CI: 93.3%~98.5%)

Method S. typhoid (IgM) Total Results
AICHEK Typhoid Rapid Test Cassette for IgM (Serum/Plasma) Results Positive Negative
Positive 29 6 35
Negative 4 229 233
Total Results 33 235 268
Specificity: 97.4% (95%CI: 94.5%~99.1%)
Sensitivity: 87.9% (95%CI: 71.8%~96.6%)
Accuracy: 96.3% (95%CI: 93.2%~98.2%)


  • Clinical Performance for IgM Test
    • Relative Sensitivity:91.2% (76.3% - 98.1%)*
    • Relative Specificity: 99.3% (97.6% - 99.9%)*
    • Relative Performance: 98.5% (96.5% - 99.5%)*
    • * 95% Confidence Intervals
  • Clinical Performance For IgG Test
    • Relative Sensitivity:92.9% (66.1% - 99.8%)*
    • Relative Specificity: 99.3% (97.6% - 99.9%)*
    • Relative Performance: 99.0% (97.2% - 99.8%)*
    • * 95% Confidence Intervals

Ordering Information

Product Cat.No. Format Packing Specimen Read time
Typhoid Rapid Test TYP-D02a Cassette 25T/BOX Whole Blood /Serum/ Plasma 10min-30min
TYP-F02a Cassette 25T/BOX Feces
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